We previously established a protocol for the activin-induced development of definitive endoderm during mouse ES cell differentiation

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nsin mRNA expression: involvement of p38 MAPK, JNK, MKP-1, and NF-kappaB transcriptional factor in A549 cells. FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol 51: 17184. 57. Ye J, Ding M, Zhang X, Rojanasakul Y, Shi X On the role of hydroxyl radical and the effect of tetrandrine on nuclear factor–kappaB activation by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate. Ann Clinl Lab Sci 30: 651. 58. Neurath MF, Pettersson S, Meyer zum Buschenfelde KH, Strober W Local administration of antisense phosphorothioate oligonucleotides to the p65 subunit of NF-kappaB abrogates established experimental colitis in mice. Nat Med 2: 998004. 59. Wong ET, Tergaonkar V Roles of NF-kappaB in health and disease: mechanisms and therapeutic potential. Clin Sci 116: 45165. 60. Bruewer M, Luegering A, Kucharzik T, Parkos CA, Madara JL, et al. Proinflammatory cytokines disrupt epithelial barrier function by apoptosisindependent mechanisms. J Immunol 171: 6164172. 11 September 2010 | Volume 5 | Issue 9 | e12969 Induction of Ovarian Primordial order 520-36-5 follicle Assembly by Connective Tissue Growth Factor CTGF Ryan Schindler, Eric Nilsson, Michael K. Skinner Center for Reproductive Biology, School Biological Sciences, Washington State University, Pullman, Washington, United States of America Abstract Primordial follicle assembly is a process that occurs when oocyte nests break down to form individual primordial follicles. The size of this initial pool of primordial follicles in part determines the reproductive lifespan of the female. Connective tissue growth factor was identified as a potential regulatory candidate for this process in a previous microarray analysis of follicle development. The current study examines the effects of CTGF and associated transforming growth factor beta 1 on follicle assembly. Ovaries were removed from newborn rat pups and placed in an organ culture system. The ovaries treated with CTGF for two days were found to have an increased proportion of assembled follicles. CTGF was found to regulate the ovarian transcriptome during primordial follicle assembly and an integrative network of genes was identified. TGFb-1 had no effect on primordial follicle assembly and in combination with CTGF decreased oocyte number in the ovary after two days of culture. Over ten days of treatment only the combined treatment of CTGF and TGFb-1 was found to cause an increase in the proportion of assembled follicles. 22633688 Interestingly, treatment with TGFb-1 alone resulted in fewer total oocytes in the ovary and decreased the primordial follicle pool size after ten days of culture. Observations indicate that CTGF alone or in combination with TGFb-1 stimulates primordial follicle assembly and TGFb-1 can decrease the primordial follicle pool size. These observations suggest the possibility of manipulating primordial follicle pool size and influencing female reproductive lifespan. Citation: Schindler R, Nilsson E, Skinner MK Induction of Ovarian Primordial Follicle Assembly by Connective Tissue Growth Factor CTGF. PLoS ONE 5: e12979. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0012979 Editor: Amit Singh, University of Dayton, United States of America Received July 9, 2010; Accepted September 1, 2010; Published September 24, 2010 Copyright: 2010 Schindler et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Funding: This study was supported by an N