we considered the involvement of the genes in psychiatric diseases and we narrow down to MARCKS and SYT

April 12, 2017

.0 21.065.9 Triglycerides 0.3960.09 0.5560.15 0.6260.17# 0.8960.36 0.4460.10 0.4160.16 0.5760.12 0.7260.23 Total cholesterol 1.3460.19 1.7060.31 9.0862.09### 14.1064.97 1.5460.29 2.1760.53 9.7861.88 20.3465.04 HDL cholesterol 0.7860.28 1.0260.42 0.5160.20 0.4160.11 LDL cholesterol 0.4360.23 0.4960.36 7.1762.05### 12.4165.14 Values represent mean 6 SD. HDL, high density lipoprotein; LDL, low density lipoprotein. Blood glucose represents average blood glucose values during the experiments. Body weight and lipids express values measured at the end of the experiments. Two HDL-cholesterol measurements in the ��wt diabetes��group yielded get RGFA-8 higher than total cholesterol values, and were therefore excluded from calculations. Missing values are due to limited plasma availability. Two-way analyses of variance revealed no interactions between factors. Bonferroni posttests 16985061 yielded p,0.01, p,0.001 for comparisons between control and diabetes of the same genotype; # p,0.05 and ### p,0.001 vs. wt control. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0012699.t001 2 September 2010 | Volume 5 | Issue 9 | e12699 VCAM-1 in Mouse Retina Genotype wt chow diet ApoE2/2 chow diet ApoE2/2 HFD Body weight 24.064.9 23.661.7 22.561.0 Blood glucose 9.362.9 9.460.6 8.160.8 Triglycerides 0.6360.41 0.4760.11 0.6260.12 Total cholesterol 1.7660.48 10.3565.19 8.8164.72 HDL cholesterol 0.7160.23 0.2060.08 0.2760.12 LDL cholesterol 0.7660.35 6.7761.10 13.1165.48 # Values represent mean 6 SD. HFD, high fat diet; HDL, high density lipoprotein; LDL, low density lipoprotein. HDL/LDL data are missing for one of the ApoE2/2 animals fed with HFD, since the HDL value was below detection limit. One-way analyses of variance followed by Bonferroni tests were performed; p,0.05, p,0.01, p,0.001 vs. wt chow diet; # p,0.05 vs. ApoE2/2 chow diet. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0012699.t002 glucose values by at least 2-fold in all groups. At the time mice were euthanized, diabetic mice had lower body weight than nondiabetic littermates. As expected, ApoE2/2 mice had higher plasma triglycerides, total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol than wt mice and as also described by others, all three parameters were further increased in diabetic ApoE2/2 mice. In ApoE2/2 mice also deficient for TNFa, cholesterol levels were also increased by diabetes and this effect was more pronounced than in ApoE2/2 mice. Hence, diabetic ApoE2/2 and ApoE2/2/TNFa2/2 mice had both hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia, whereas wt and TNFa2/2 mice exhibited hyperglycemia but no significant changes in plasma lipids. To further elucidate the impact of hyperlipidemia on endothelial activation, two separate sets of experiments were performed, a first one in which hyperlipidemic ApoE2/2 mice were fed a high fat diet for 4 weeks and a second one in which normolipidemic mice were fed a HFD for 4 or 8 weeks. Mean body weight, blood glucose and plasma lipids for these experiments are summarized in Effect of diabetes on VCAM-1 protein expression in retinal vessels To determine the effect of diabetes on endothelial activation in retinal arteries, we measured VCAM-1 expression by confocal immunofluorescence microscopy. As previously shown by us and others, VCAM-1 was detected in both endothelial and smooth muscle cells in arteries from mouse, with higher expression in endothelial cells. As shown in higher VCAM-1 levels than wt mice and TNFa deficient ApoE2/2 mice exhibited higher VCAM-1 expression than ApoE2/2 mice, suggesting that TNFa may be involved in the regulatio