24289300 (ext. 86283)Citation: Tejero, P.; Mart , A.; Rodr uez, A.; Galv , A.I.; Ruiz-Moyano,

June 7, 2023

24289300 (ext. 86283)Citation: Tejero, P.; Mart , A.; Rodr uez, A.; Galv , A.I.; Ruiz-Moyano, S.; Hern dez, A. In Vitro Biological Manage of Aspergillus flavus by Hanseniaspora opuntiae L479 and Hanseniaspora uvarum L793, Producers of RSK4 Biological Activity antifungal Volatile Organic Compounds. Toxins 2021, 13, 663. doi.org/10.3390/ toxins13090663 Received: 9 August 2021 Accepted: 8 September 2021 Published: 17 SeptemberAbstract: Aspergillus flavus is usually a toxigenic fungal colonizer of fruits and cereals and may perhaps generate on the list of most important mycotoxins from a food safety viewpoint, aflatoxins. Thus, its development and mycotoxin production really should be correctly avoided to shield consumers’ well being. Amongst the safe and green antifungal techniques that will be applied inside the field, biocontrol is often a current and emerging approach that requirements to be explored. Yeasts are usually good biocontrol candidates to decrease mold-related hazards and their modes of action are a lot of, one of them becoming the production of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). To this finish, the influence of VOCs produced by Hanseniaspora opuntiae L479 and Hanseniaspora uvarum L793 on development, expression on the regulatory gene of your aflatoxin pathway (aflR) and mycotoxin production by A. flavus for 21 days was assessed. The results showed that both yeasts, in spite of producing various types of VOCs, had a similar impact on inhibiting growth, mycotoxin biosynthetic gene expression and phenotypic toxin production general at the mid-incubation period when their synthesis was the greatest. Primarily based around the final results, both yeast strains, H. opuntiae L479 and H. uvarum L793, are potentially appropriate as a biopreservative agents for inhibiting the growth of A. flavus and minimizing aflatoxin SIRT6 custom synthesis accumulation. Keywords: relative gene expression; aflatoxin production; antagonism; antifungal volatile esters Key Contribution: Two yeast strains, producers of volatile organic compounds, seem to be an efficient tactic to control toxigenic Aspergillus flavus.Publisher’s Note: MDPI stays neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.1. Introduction Aflatoxins are a group of 18 highly toxic secondary metabolites created mostly by species belonging for the genus Aspergillus. Among them, aflatoxins B1 , B2 , G1 and G2 and their metabolic goods, aflatoxins M1 and M2 , will be the most common and threatening ones since of dietary exposure. A number of well being effects have already been described connected to aflatoxin exposure, which include hepatotoxicity [1], immunotoxicity [2], genotoxicity [3], alterations inside the microbial population on the gut [4] and reproductive harm [5]. Especially, aflatoxin B1 has been classed as group I by the International Agency for Research on Cancer, which implies that this compound is carcinogenic to humans [6]. It has been reported that exposure of shoppers to aflatoxin B1 is connected to cancer in the lungs [7] and liver [8]. So that you can guard customer health, around the basis of a danger assessment, the European Commission has set maximum limits of 52 /kg for aflatoxin B1 and 45 /kg forCopyright: 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is definitely an open access report distributed under the terms and situations with the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( creativecommons.org/licenses/by/ 4.0/).Toxins 2021, 13, 663. doi.org/10.3390/toxinsmdpi/journal/toxinsToxins 2021, 13,two ofthe sum of aflatoxins B1 , B2 , G1 and G2 for oilseeds, almonds, p