46Citation: Bandeira, C.M.; Almeida, A.; Alves, M.G.O.; Pascoal

March 7, 2024

46Citation: Bandeira, C.M.; Almeida, A.; Alves, M.G.O.; Pascoal, M.B.N.; Chagas, J.F.S.; Neto, M.B.; de Barros, P.P.; Nunes, F.D.; Carta, C.F.L.; Almeida, J.D. The Fagerstr and AUDIT Tests as Probable Screening Tools in Oral Cancer and Their Correlation with CYP1A1, GSTM1, GSTP1, and GSTT1 Gene Expression. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Well being 2022, 19, 3991. doi.org/10.3390/ ijerph19073991 Academic Editor: Paul B. Tchounwou Received: 28 December 2021 Accepted: 1 March 2022 Published: 27 March 2022 Publisher’s Note: MDPI stays neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.Department of Bioscience and Oral Diagnosis, Institute of Science and Technologies of S Josdos Campos, S Paulo State University (Unesp), S Josdos Campos 12245-000, Brazil; [email protected] (C.M.B.); [email protected] (A.A.); [email protected] (P.P.d.B.); [email protected] (C.F.L.C.) Faculdade de Ci cias M icas de S Josdos Campos–Humanitas, S Josdos Campos 12220-061, Brazil School of Medicine, Anhembi Morumbi University, S Josdos Campos 12230-002, Brazil; mgoliveiraalves@gmail Technology Investigation Center (NPT), Universidade Mogi das Cruzes, Mogi das Cruzes 08780-911, Brazil Division of Head and Neck Surgery, S Leopoldo Mandic College, Campinas 13045-755, Brazil; [email protected] (M.B.N.P.); [email protected] (J.F.S.C.) Department of Head and Neck Surgery, Hospital Municipal Doutor M io Gatti, Campinas 13036-902, Brazil Division of Basic Sciences and Atmosphere, S Paulo University, S Paulo 12602-810, Brazil; [email protected] Division of Oral Pathology, School of Dentistry, S Paulo University, S Paulo 05508-000, Brazil; [email protected] Correspondence: [email protected]; Tel.: +55-12-3947-9000 Present address: Multicampi School of Health-related Sciences, Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Caic59078-970, Brazil.Copyright: 2022 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is definitely an open access write-up distributed under the terms and conditions in the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( creativecommons.org/licenses/by/ 4.0/).Abstract: Background: Cancer is currently a significant public overall health challenge worldwide, with a marked enhance of about 70 inside the quantity of expected diagnosed instances over the following two decades. The level of tobacco and alcohol consumed is calculated according to the subjective info supplied by the user. Tobacco exposure might be assessed working with the Fagerstr Test for Cigarette Dependence (FTCD) and alcohol consumption by the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT).IL-1 beta Protein Species Materials and Techniques: Forty-eight subjects answered the Fagerstr , and AUDIT tests and we studied them as likely screening tools for oral cancer and their correlation using the expression of CYP1A1, GSTM1, GSTP1, and GSTT1 genes by the RT-qPCR system.Cathepsin B, Human (His) Final results: There had been considerable variations inside the AUDIT score and CYP1A1 expression among cancer and handle groups.PMID:26895888 Participants in sophisticated stages, no matter if because of tumor size or regional metastasis, showed substantial variations inside the duration of tobacco use, FTCD, AUDIT score, and CYP1A1 expression when compared to individuals in early stages. Amongst subjects with out cancer, we identified a significant correlation among participant age and GSTP1 expression. Furthermore, the expression of GSTP1 was significantly correlated with all the quantity of cigarettes smoked each day, duration of tobacco use, and FTCD. Conclusions: Qu.